Warp Speed Fat Loss by Alwyn Cosgrove Contains Plagiarised Material

Quick edit: I have been informed via email that my use of the term ‘plagiarism’ to describe this particular event is incorrect. Rather, the correct term for what happened is copyright infringement. I apologize for any confusion this may have caused.

Lyle

***

On Tuesday, I wrote a little bit of an introduction to the issue of plagiarism on the internet, giving a couple of examples that, at the end of the day don’t affect me an iota. In that post, I mentioned that I would be talking about a situation that does affect me and that’s today’s post.

That post involves my Ultimate Diet 2.0 (written and published in 2003) and the new book by Alwyn Cosgrove and Mike Rousseau Warp Speed Fat Loss released earlier this year.

In the context of this issue, I’d only mention that Alwyn was one of the people who tested out my original Stubborn Fat Protocol (now titled the SFP 1.0 in the my new book The Stubborn Fat Solution).

Imagine my surprise when I saw the original protocol repeated verbatim in New Rules of Lifting completely uncredited.

Now, I’m willing to give the benefit of the doubt here, I imagine the guys publishing the book didn’t really want my name put in the book so Alwyn may not have had anything to do with that. So I let that slide.

Hence, I wasn’t particularly stunned to see that same protocol repeated (uncredited yet again), in Warp Speed Fat Loss. So it goes.

However, consider my surprise when, upon reading the chapter detailing how fat is burned, I noticed quite a few similarities to my own original text from my Ultimate Diet 2.0.

And when I say similarities, what I mean to say is ‘this text is literally word for word what I wrote.’

Yes, some bits were simplified or changed a touch but there were too many places where the text is identical (including one hysterical place where my same bolded emphasis was included. You’ll see it below).

Alwyn appears to have sat there with the e-book of my UD2 and just copy and pasted my text into his book.

And, fine, I’m quite sure you can argue (and by argue I mean rationalize) that this information can only be presented in so many ways, anybody detailing the steps of fat burning would probably write something similar. I don’t disagree.

But it’s pretty clear that this is pretty much a copy and paste job.

That’s copyright infringement. That’s theft. Plain and simple.

And now it’s time to show the world exactly what he did. I’m sure the Cosgrove apologists will find excuses for why Al thought he could rip me off (and not get caught) but hopefully some people will see him for what he is.

In any case, below I’ve laid out my original text from the chapter on fat loss from my Ultimate Diet 2.0 versus Alwyn’s chapter on burning fat from Warp Speed Fat Loss exactly as they appear in the respective books. I haven’t changed the order or flow in any way.

My text appears first, Alwyn’s appears second indented for ease of reading.

Lyle

**

First, let me elaborate on what it means to lose or “burn” body fat. What this means is that the fat stored in your fat cells is removed from those cells and converted to energy elsewhere in the body. Most tissues in the body (there are a few exceptions such as the brain) can use fatty acids for fuel, but the main ones we are interested in are skeletal muscle and the liver.

What do we actually mean when we talk about “burning” bodyfat? We mean that the fat stored in the fat cells is removed and “burned” as energy. Most tissues in the body can use fat for fuel, but the main one for our purposes is muscle tissue.

Step 1: Mobilization
Recall from last chapter that body fat is primarily stored triglyceride, with a small amount of water and some enzymatic and cellular machinery. Mobilizing body fat requires that we first break down the stored triglyceride into three fatty acids and a molecule of glycerol. The rate limiting step in this process is an enzyme called hormone sensitive lipase (HSL).

Mobilization
Bodyfat is essentially stored triglyceride, with a small amount of water. Mobilizing bodyfat requires that we first break down the triglyceride into free fatty acids. The limiting step (i.e. the one thing that can hold us back) in this process is an enzyme called hormone sensitive lipase (HSL).

Although a number of hormones such as testosterone, cortisol, estrogen, and growth hormone have modulating effects on HSL activity (mainly increasing or decreasing total levels of HSL in the fat cell), the only hormones that we need to be concerned with in terms of HSL activity are insulin and the catecholamines.

Although a number of hormones effect HSL, the only hormones that we need to be concerned with in terms of HSL activity are insulin and the catecholamines.

The primary inactivator of HSL is the hormone insulin and it only takes very tiny amounts (depending on insulin sensitivity) to have an effect. Even fasting insulin levels are sufficient to inactivate HSL by nearly 50%. Small increases in insulin (from either protein or carbohydrate intake) inactivate HSL further.

Insulin is the main inactivator of HSL and it only takes very small amounts to have a detrimental effect. Fasting insulin levels are sufficient to reduce HSL activity by nearly 50%. Small increases in insulin (from food intake) also inactivate HSL.

Additionally, the mere presence of triglycerides in the bloodstream (via infusion or by just eating dietary fat by itself) also inhibits HSL activity so this isn’t as simple as just blaming insulin. One way or another, any time you eat, HSL is going to be inactivated, either by the increase in insulin from protein or carbs or the presence of fat in the bloodstream from eating fat.

Additionally, the mere presence of fat in the blood inhibits HSL activity. Basically any time you eat, HSL activity is reduced.

The primary hormones which activate HSL are the catecholamines: adrenaline and noradrenaline. Adrenaline is released from the adrenal cortex, traveling through the bloodstream to affect numerous tissues in the body. This means that blood flow to fat cells has an impact on how much or how little adrenaline will reach fat cells.

The main activators of HSL are the catecholamines: primarily adrenaline. Adrenaline is a ‘energy’ hormone released from the adrenal cortex, and travels through the bloodstream. This means that blood flow has an impact on how
much adrenaline will reach fat cells.

A tangent: All about adrenoreceptors
All hormones work through specific receptors and the catecholamines are no different, they have their own specific receptors called adrenoreceptors.

The catecholamines have their own specific receptors called adrenoreceptors.

There are two major classes of adrenoreceptors: beta and alpha, which are found all over the body.

There are two major adrenoreceptors: beta and alpha, which are found all over the body.

The main receptors we need to worry about in human fat cells are alpha-2 receptors and beta-1 and beta-2 receptors, both of which actively bind the catecholamine hormones.

The main receptors in fat cells are alpha-2 receptors and beta-1,2 receptors, both of which actively bind the catecholamines.

When catecholamines bind to beta-1,2 receptors, they increase cAMP levels, which increases fat breakdown. Great. However, when the catecholamines bind alpha-2 receptors, they decrease cAMP levels which decreases fat breakdown. Not great. But it means that catecholamines, which I told you were fat mobilizers, can actually send both fat mobilizing and anti-fat mobilizing signals: by binding to either alpha- or beta-receptors.

When catecholamines bind to beta receptors, they increase fat breakdown. However, when they bind to alpha receptors, fat breakdown decreases. Therefore, depending on receptor binding, catecholamines can actually increase or decrease fat mobilization.

So why does this matter? Different areas of body fat have different distributions of alpha-2 and beta-1,2 adrenoreceptors. For example, women’s lower body fat (hips and thighs) have been found to have 9 times as many alpha-2 receptors as beta-1,2 receptors.

This is important as different fat deposits have different distributions of alpha and beta adrenoreceptors. For example, women’s lower body fat has been shown to have nine times as many alpha receptors as beta receptors

Now you know part of why its so difficult to reduce these stubborn fat areas; with a greater number of alpha-2 receptors to bind catecholamines, it’s that much more difficult to stimulate fat breakdown in those fat cells.

This is why it’s so difficult to reduce these stubborn fat areas; with a greater number of alpha receptors to bind catecholamines, it’s much more difficult to stimulate fat breakdown in those fat cells

Back to mobilization: Summing up
I should note that insulin pretty much always wins the battle over fat cell metabolism. That is, even in the face of high catecholamine levels, if insulin is elevated, fat mobilization will be impaired.

It’s important to realize that insulin pretty much always wins the battle over fat cell metabolism. Regardless of catecholamine levels, if insulin is elevated, fat mobilization will be impaired.

The real take home message is that, from a fat mobilization standpoint, we want low insulin and high catecholamine levels. Both can be readily accomplished by altering diet (lowering carbohydrates and calories) and exercise (which increases catecholamines).

The real world message is that, from a fat mobilization standpoint, we want low insulin and high catecholamine levels. Both can be easily achieved by altering diet (lowering carbohydrates) and exercise (which increases catecholamines).

Step 2: Blood flow and transport
So imagine a situation where insulin is low and the catecholamines are high, causing stored triglyceride to be broken down (the technical word is hydrolyzed) to glycerol and free fatty acids (FFAs). So now we have albumin-bound FFAs sitting in the circulation surrounding the fat cell Since the FFA can’t be burned there, it has to be transported away from the fat cell; this depends on blood flow to and from the fat cell.

So we break down the stored bodyfat into free fatty acids (FFAs) which enter the bloodstream. Since the FFA can’t be burned in the bloodstream, it has to be transported away from the fat cell; this depends on blood flow to and from the fat cell.

As with insulin sensitivity and adrenoreceptor ratios, fat depots differ in terms of blood flow. Visceral fat, for example, has an extremely high blood flow relative to other fat depots. Visceral fat is mobilized fairly easily and, because of this, it generally goes away the fastest (especially with exercise).

Fat deposits also differ in terms of blood flow. Visceral fat (the fat the sits around your internal organs), for example, has an extremely high blood flow and is therefore mobilized fairly easily and generally is reduced fastest (especially with exercise).

Relative to visceral fat, abdominal (and probably low-back) fat has less blood flow, is less sensitive to the fat mobilizing effects of the catecholamines, and more sensitive to insulin. This makes it more stubborn than visceral fat.

Abdominal fat has less blood flow, is less sensitive to the catecholamines, and more sensitive to insulin. This makes it more stubborn than visceral fat.

So now we have yet another reason that stubborn fat is stubborn: poor blood flow which makes transporting the mobilized fatty acids away more difficult. Actually, it isn’t entirely true that blood flow to stubborn fat cells is always slow. In response to a meal, blood flow to stubborn fat increases readily; at all other times, blood flow to stubborn fat is slow.

Blood flow to stubborn fat cells, however is not always slow. In response to a meal, blood flow to stubborn fat increases readily; at all other times, blood flow to stubborn fat is slow.

Basically, it’s easier to store calories in stubborn fat than to get it back out.

Basically, it’s easier to store calories in stubborn fat than to get it back out.

Studies show that women tend to have preferential increases in blood flow to their hips and thighs after a meal; the old wives’ tale about fatty foods going straight to the hips turns out to be true after all.

Studies show that women tend to have increases in blood flow to their hips and thighs after a meal; the old saying “a moment on the lips, a lifetime on the hips” appears to be true after all!

But the point is made, poor blood flow to stubborn fat cells is yet another reason dieting to sub-average body fat levels is difficult. So how might we improve blood flow to and from fat cells? Blood flow to fat cells improves during fasting and, although we can’t fast completely (too much muscle loss), we can mimic the condition with a low-carbohydrate/ketogenic diet. This fits in with our goal of lowering insulin in the first place and turns out to have an extra advantage that I’ll discuss in a later chapter.

So poor blood flow to stubborn fat is yet another reason getting lean can be difficult. How do we improve this? Blood flow to fat cells improves during fasting and, although we obviously can’t fast all the time, we can create a similar condition with a reduced carbohydrate diet, tying in with our goal of lowering insulin.

Step 3: Uptake and utilization
Eventually, the albumin-bound FFA will run into a tissue (such as the liver or muscle) which can use it for fuel.

Eventually, the FFA will run into a tissue (e.g. muscle) which can use it for fuel.

To be used for energy, the FFA has to be transported into the mitochondria by an enzyme called carnitine palmityl transferase (CPT).

To be used, the FFA has to be transported into the mitochondria by carnitine.

CPT activity is controlled by a few different factors, including your aerobic capacity (the more aerobically fit you are, the more fat you burn), as well as glycogen levels.

Carnitine activity is controlled by a few different factors, including your glycogen levels.

When glycogen is high, CPT activity is low and fat burning is low, and vice versa. This is true for both muscle and liver. By depleting muscle and liver glycogen, we can increase CPT activity, allowing us to burn off the fatty acids at a faster rate.

When glycogen is high, carnitine activity is low and fat burningis low, and vice versa. By depleting muscle glycogen, we can increase carnitine activity, allowing us to burn off the fat at a faster rate.

This is readily accomplished with the combination of lowered carbohydrates and intensive training which fits in with our other goals rather nicely anyhow.

As you can see – we can ramp up fat metabolism very effectively with the combination of lowered carbohydrates and intensive exercise.

Is Plagiarism the New Internet Business Model?

Ok, a quick diversion from the diet series since it seems to be stalling anyhow and I can’t figure out how to get it back on track. I’ve been sitting on this a little while but figured this was as good a time as any to cause a true shit-storm.

Oh yeah, just to avoid the inevitable backlash, trolling and bullshit, I’m turning comments off for this and my next blog entry.

****

Now, it’s no big news to say that there aren’t a whole lot of new idea in the world of diet and training. There’s an old joke to the effect that “Anything you’re doing now, Grimek did it.” John Grimek was a lifter way back when and the implication is that there is nothing new under the sun.

Basically true. There are only so many ways to mix up the macronutrients to make a diet, there are only so many different basic ways to train. There are damn few new ideas to be had.

Which means that, in general, everybody simply steals from each other when it comes to ideas about training, diet, etc.

This is normal, this is fine; I do it and so does everybody else and I’m not in a position to criticize that specifically.

The intellectually honest ones will actually give credit to the person they’re stealing from; I don’t see a lot of intellectually honest folks in this industry. I try to give credit where it’s due; if I steal a good idea I try to note who I stole it from.

But at some point stealing an idea (credited or not) goes a step further to plagiarism, using someone else’s words, essentially unchanged because you either can’t (because you’re too stupid) or won’t (because you’re just that fucking lazy) write it yourself.

A few cases in point:

1. A little while back, apparent special needs child Jimmy Smith (not to be confused with ‘The Thinker” James Smith) got busted for ripping off one of Craig Ballantyne’s sales page completely. This was made obvious by the fact that, in the affiliates section, he forgot to change Craig’s name to his own. Rather than own up to it, he tried to blame a foreign webmaster.

You can’t make this shit up, folks.

2. Jason Ferrugia was caught ripping material off of Mark Twight’s website (Twight trained the guys for the movie 300) and trying to pass it off as his own work at Elite Fitness Systems. When notified of this, EFS took the article down promptly so I can’t really link you to it.

Now, I’ll admit that I’m out of the loop on this stuff, I don’t keep up with the internet marketing stuff for the most part. I have this strange thing I do where I’d rather spend my time learning new things about physiology, nutrition and training than how to make better sales pages. This attitude is clearly not shared by many in the industry who would appear to spend more time figuring out how to make sales pages that convert than putting out quality product.

In any case, it leads me to wonder if Ryan Lee released a new marketing DVD to the effect of “Since you guys are too lazy and incompetent to come up with your own material, I’m going to show you how to just plagiarize someone else’s work AND MAKE MAD CASH DOING IT.”?

It wouldn’t particularly surprise me at this point in the game. It’s gotten that bad.

But frankly, the above didn’t bother me that much because it didn’t affect me other than to make me laugh a bit.

But a more recent case did bother me, because it involves my work directly.

The shit will really hit the fan when you see how Alwyn Cosgrove plagiarized my Ultimate Diet 2.0 for his Warp Speed Fat Loss book.

A new approach to training: Cold plyometrics

In this day and age of information overload and guru-wisdom, it becomes increasingly hard to come up with new and useful training ideas to take athletes to that next level.

However, I have done so with an approach I like to call cold plyometrics (James Smith would refer to this as the sub-temperature shock methodic as a fundamental part of the process of attaining sports mastery)

Plyometrics (originally known as the ‘Shock method’ as developed by Yuri Verkoshanky of Russia) have come to encompass a broad array of jumping drills (ranging from the original depth jumps to bounding and even light hopping). Argued to represent the link between strength and speed, plyos are primarily thought to affect the nervous system function. Improvements in rate of force development (RFD) and the ability to resist eccentric shock, along with muscle strengthening are all improvements from plyometric training.

Disclaimer: Please not that plyometrics are not appropriate for beginners. Jumping kills, kids, just like your mom told you.

However plyos are not without problems. The higher intensity plyos, due to the high eccentric component are able to generate a great deal of local muscle damage and inflammation. This is a problem as athletes are often unable to train due to soreness or inflammation.

Enter cold. Cryotherapy (what James Smith would call the methodic of freezing your behooved testicular mass off) has been shown repeatedly to help control inflammation of skeletal muscle.

Their combination (what James Smith would call the advanced conjugated method of blah blah blah I’m going to use every word in the dictionary mom got me for Christmas) clearly represents a step forwards in the training of elite athletes.

I have provide a clear example of their utility in the following video clip. You can clearly see that combining plyometrics with cold exposure allowed my athlete to continue jumping far beyond what would have been possible under non-cryotherapy conditions. The potential for gains should be exponential.

Enjoy and good training

Conjugate Training (sort of)

Note: I wrote this several years ago when I was just as unclear on the topic of conjugate training as everyone else. Simply put, the way that conjugate training is being used by lifters it not the way it was meant by the original Russian sports scientists. What the below really describes is a) a concurrent system b) what I hope is a little insight into the logic of planning training.

Introduction

Well, since the topic seems to keep coming up recently, this seems as good a time as any to give an example of how I go about training someone other than myself.

In this case, my two victims are two female personal trainers at my gym. Both have good musculature and drive and I had approached one of them about competing in something. Given the choice of bodybuilding and powerlifting, they chose powerlifting, mainly because they both hate to diet (one would like to bodybuild and I told her that the type of training I’d have them do would help her towards that goal). They both have potential and good drive in training (one has too much of an ego and I’m going to have to hold her back a bit) which is why I’m working with them.

I tested their 1RM about a week ago to get an idea of their strength. I did make one mistake: I took them at their word for their previous lifts, instead of knowing to lower the poundages significantly when they did it correctly. The ego driven one was quite pissed that she couldn’t put up as much weight doing it the right way.

Actually, I consider there to be three ways to do things in the gym: the right way, the wrong way, and the Lyle way. They are training the Lyle way. Which is, basically, the right way^3. Badly done reps don’t count in my world, and I already had to yell at one for RUNNING (!) on the treadmill for 30 minutes before the squat workout. There’s more to it than that but let’s just say that if my athletes don’t hate my guts for being a dick, I’m not doing my job right.

In any event, I got a rough idea of their current form, weaknesses (technique mainly) and approximate strength levels. I designed the following routine towards a couple of goals:

a. consolidating/perfecting technique: until they get perfect technique down, worrying about poundage will do nothing but harm. This also explains my reliance on slower speed movement. We can argue until the cows come home about slow vs. explosive lifting in terms of training effect but, for motor learning and technical work (olympic lifts excepted), I think slower speeds are better. It reduces the weights that can be used and gives the lifter time to think about what they are doing. it also makes it easier for me to give my cues (big breath, head up, tight back, etc.) which I give more or less constantly in the initial stages. Once their form is where I want it to be, I will have them working more explosively/dynamically during the concentric portion of the powerlifts (I may or may not stick with slower speeds on the assistance work).

b. Building strength and/or size in the prime movers for the three powerlifts. Since the lifts themselve are being done submaximally, I picked assistance work to build up the muscles involved in each lift. This can be worked more heavily as form is less technical. This also keeps them from feeling they are wasting time doing so much submax work. More specific assistance work in terms of targetting specific weak points will come later.

This more or less represents a conjugate approach to training, there are multiple capacities being trained (technique, general strength/size, speed) in varying proportions depending on what’s needed by the athlete. I’ll make some more comments on how that will change as they progress at the end.

For each lift, squat, bench, deadlift, I set up a heavy day and a light day (noting the significant overlap between squat and DL). For upper body, it actually ends up being one day of heavy chest/light back and heavy back/light chest. Each day’s workout with some comments on why I chose what I chose appear below. You might also note that it’s more or less symmetrical in terms of the content of each training day and hwo the workouts oppose one another.

Monday: Squat + assistance/light DL

Squat: 5 sets of 5/3-5′ rest. 3 seconds down, no pause/smooth turnaround, 2 seconds up (3/0/2 notation from here on out). I picked weights that were about 75-80% of their tested 1RM so this is submaximal. The goal is technique and there are lots of details to work out of their form.

RDL: 3 sets of 6-8/2-3′ rest. 3/0/2. Posterior chain work.

leg press with squat stance: 3 sets of 6-8/2-3′ rest. 3/1/2. Basic strength for prime movers used in squat, pause is to start building starting strength out of the hole.

Speed DL: 10X2/45″ rest. 80% of the weight used on Thu. Right now, they are NOT doing these quickly. This represents more technical/form work. After 6-8 weeks, they will work on more acceleration during the concentric.

Calf raise: 3X6-8/2′ rest. 3/1/2. It’s calf work, how much commentary do you expect. BTW, they were screaming by the end of this, because of the slow speeds.

Tuesday: heavy bench, light back

Bench press: 5 sets of 5/3-5′ rest. 3/1/2. Again, technique is the goal here. Learning to stay tight during the pause and generate power from that position.

T-bar row: 2X10-12/2-3′. 3/0/2 To balance out bench work, build a big back, keep shoulders healthy.

Incline DB press: 3X6-8/2-3′. 3/0/2. To get some more volume for the chest, get some unstable work for rotator cuff.

Pulldown: 2X10-12/2-3′. 3/0/2. To balance out inclines, build a wide back.

DB lateral raise: 2-3X8-10/1-2′. 3/0/1. Delt work but since triceps are trashed, I picked an isolation exercise.

CG bench alternated with biceps curl: 2X10-12/2′ rest. 3/0/2. Arm work, duh. Since neither girl is getting much out of the CG bench, I’m switching to one of my favorite triceps exercises: decline nose breaker (Hi John).

Rotator cuff on cable stack: 1-2 sets of 8-12. Duh.

Thursday: Deadlift + assistance/light squat

Deadlift: 5 sets of 5/3-5′ rest. 3/0/2 I picked weights that were about 75-80% of their tested 1RM so this is submaximal. The goal is technique and I am a form nazi.

Front squat: 3X6/2-3′ rest. 3/0/2. Quad work.

Leg press with DL stance: 3X6-8/2-3′. 3/1/2. Basic strength for prime movers used in DL, pause is to start building starting strength out of the hole.

Speed squat: 10X2/45″ rest. 80% of the weight used on Thu. Right now, they are NOT doing these quickly. This represents more technical/form work. After 6-8 weeks, they will work on more acceleration during the concentric.

Calf raise: same as Monday.

Friday: heavy back, light bench

Speed bench: 10X2/45″ rest. 3/1/X (3 seconds down, 1 second pause, accelerate concentric). 80% of the weight used on Thu. Since their form is good on this, I went ahead and let them go fast on the concentric.

Pulldown/chin: 5X5/2-3′. 3/0/2. Back work.

Shoulder press: 3X6-8/2-3′. 3/0/2. Delt work with dumbbells, same rationale as incline DB above.

T-bar row: 3X6-8/2-3′. 3/1/2. Midback work.

CG bench alternated with biceps curl: 2X10-12/2′ rest. 3/0/2. Arm work, duh. Since neither girl is getting much out of the CG bench, I’m switching to one of my favorite triceps exercises: decline nose breaker (Hi John).

Rotator cuff on cable stack: 1-2 sets of 8-12. Duh.

So that’s where I started them. Each workout is taking about an hour and 15 minutes and so far they both love it and hate it (the going slow is kicking their asses). As above, the first 8 weeks has as its main goal technique consolidation, some general strengthening, a little speed work, and some hypertrophy. Weights on the main lifts will go up as long as technique is perfect, weights on the assistance stuff can go up faster. Speed work will stay submaximal since it’s speed work.

After that, I’ll start pushing the main lifts a little heavier, with repeat triples to get them used to being under heavier weights. Assistance work will change as true weak points are identified and will be worked heavier. I’ll still include some general hypetrophy work and the speed work will become more speed oriented. This will be another 4-8 week cycle.

At that point, the goal is to pick a competition and train specifically towards that. I like wave loading for the main lifts with specific assistance work picked to train weak points, and trained heavier. Speed work will be maintained but with far less emphasis on hypertrophy training. They will probably compete in USAPL using basic gear and I will introduce them to that at a time point sufficient for them to get used to it.